ART

CALATRAVA%2C+SANTIAGO

CALATRAVA, SANTIAGO
CALATRAVA, SANTIAGO
SPAIN
Born: July 28, 1951 in Vallencia, Spain.

Calatrava attended primary and secondary schools in Valencia. Upon completing high school in Valencia, he went to Paris with the intention of enrolling in the Ecole de Beaux-Arts, but since he arrived in June 1968, he found his plan unworkable. He returned to Valencia and enrolled in the Escuela Tecnica Superior de Arqitectura, a relatively new institution, where he earned his degree in architecture and took a post-graduate course in urbanism. While at the school, he also undertook independent projects with a group of fellow students, producing two books on the vernacular architecture of Valencia and Ibiza.

Attracted by the mathematical rigor of certian great works of historic architecture and feeling that his training in in Valencia had given him no clear direction, Calatrava decided to pursue post-graduate studies in civil engineering and enrolled in 1975 at the ETH (Federal Institute of Technology) in Zurich. He received his Ph.D. in 1979. It was during this period that he met and married his wife who was a law student at Zurich.

After completing his studies, he began to accept small engineering commissions such as designing the roof for a library or the balcony of a private residence. He also began to enter competitions, believing this was his most likely way to secure commissions. His first winning competition proposal, in 1983, was for the design and construction of Stadelhofen Railway Station in Zurich, the city in which he established his office.

In 1984, Calatrava designed and built the Bach de Roda Bridge in Barcelona. This was the beginning of the bridge projects that established his international reputation. Among the notable bridges that followed were the Alamillo Bridge and viaduct, commissioned for the World's Fair in Seville (1987-92); Campo Volantin Footbridge in Bilbao (1990-97); and Alameda Bridge and underground station in Valencia (1991-95).

Calatrava established his firm's second office in Paris in 1989 when we was working on the Lyon Airport Station (1989-94). He opened his third office in Valencia in 1991 to facilitate work on a competition, a very large cultural complex and urban intervention, the City of Arts and Sciences, Valencia. Other large-scale public projects from the late 1980s through the mid-1990s include the BCE Place Hall in Toronto (1987-92); the Oriente John the Divine in New York, New York, USA (1981) , a project that has not been realized.

Exhibitions of Calatrava's work were first mounted in 1985 with a showing of nine sculptures in an art gallery in Zurich. A new stage in recognition was marked by two solo exhibitions; a retrospective at the Royal Institute of British Architects in Longdon in 1992 and the exhibition Structure and Expression at The Museum of Modern Art, New York, New York, USA, in 1993. The latter exhibition included an installation in museum's Sculpture Garden of Shadow Machine, a large-scale sculpture with undulating "concrete fingers." The most complete exhibition yet mounted of his work was Santiago Calatrava: Artist, Architect, Engineer, presented at the Palazzo Strozzi in Florence, Italy (2000-2001). Similar exhibitions were mounted in 2001 in Dallas, Texas, USA (to inaugurate the new Meadows Museum) and in Athens at the National Gallery, Alexandro Soutzos Museum. In 2003, the exhibition "Like a Bird" was mounted at the Kunsthistorisches Museum in Vienna, Austria. In 2005, two solo exhibitions about his work as an artist are mounted in New York, one at the Metropolitan Museum of Art titled "Santiago Calatrava: Sculpture into Architecture" and the second at the Queen Sofia Spanisch Institute, "Clay and Pain: Ceramics and Watercolors."

Major projects that were recently inaugurated include: Sondica Airport Bilbao, Spain (2000); The Bridge of Europe, Orleans, France (2000); Bodegas Yslos winerv in Laguardia, Spain (2001); Calatrava's first building in the United States, the expansion of the Milwaukee Art Museum, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA (2001); James Joyce Bridge, Dublin, Ireland; Auditorio de Tenerife, Santa Cruz, Canary Islands, Spain (2003); Three Bridges over the Hoofdvaart, Hoofddoorp, Holland (2004); Sundial Bridge at Turtle Bay, Redding, California, USA (2004); Athens Olympic Sports Complex (2004); Zurich University Law Faculty (2004); and Turning Torso Tower, Malmo, Sweden (2005).

Among the projects that are coming to completion are: Petach Tikvah Bridge, Israel (2006); Quarto Ponte sul Canal Grande, Venice, Italy (2006); and the Palacio de las Artes, Valencia, Spain (2006), the major building in his City of Arts and Sciences.